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Networking

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10.
In previous versions of Windows, saving a file was a disaster (at least when it was unintentional). Apart from System Restore, Windows did not have built-in options to roll back accidental file changes. The original version of the file was lost if you were unable to save it with a new file name.
Realizing that this is a problem, Microsoft introduced File History, a feature that allows you to roll back changes to files, but there are alternatives if you prefer to use a third-party solution. Here’s what you need to do to restore previous versions of files in Windows 10.
How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

Restore previous versions of files using File History

If you want to revert changes to a file and restore a previous version, the best way to do so is to use Windows native file versioning features. First you need to enable file history, which usually uses an external drive (or in some cases a network drivesyncing your files to the cloud

  1. You can check if there is file history. included in the Windows settings menu. Right-click the start menu and select the Settings option to start.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

  1. From the Windows Settings menu, select Update & Security Backup. Under the File History Backup option, the drive you are currently using to back up your file history will be listed. If it is not listed, you need to enable file history by selecting the Add Disk option.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

  1. A list of available external drives will appear in the drop-down menu. Select one of them to enable file history. A slider will appear in the Backup menu to enable or disable File History as soon as you do so. You can choose which folders it monitors by selecting “More options” under the slider.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

    1. In the Advanced Options menu, you can add or remove folders to track your file history by selecting the Add Folder option under the Back up these folders category.

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How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. You can also change the frequency of file backups and the frequency of keeping backups. To change these settings, change them using the Back up files and Save my backups drop-down menus.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. After enabling file history and tracking the correct folders, you can restore previous versions of files using Windows Explorer. This will only work for files that you edit after enabling file history. To do this, open File Explorer and locate the file or folder containing the file you want to recover. Right-click the file or folder and select the Restore Previous Versions option.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. On the Previous Versions tab of the Properties window, you will see a list of previous versions of your file or folder. To view a file or folder, select the version you want to restore from the list, then click the Open button below. If you want to restore it, select “Restore”.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. If you select “Restore”, the previously saved files will overwrite the new files. To keep both copies, first click the down arrow next to the Restore button and then select Restore To.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. Select a new folder to keep previous versions of your files, then select the Select Folder option.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10
Windows Explorer will open to show you the recovered files, regardless of whether you chose to overwrite new copies or save them elsewhere. This option, as we already mentioned, only works if you had file history enabled before you made changes to the files.
Unfortunately, there aren’t many options available to help you restore previous versions in Windows 10 if you don’t already have a backup system. However, you may have better luck if you delete the file, as Microsoft now offers a Windows file recovery tool to help you recover your lost files.

Using third-party file release software

Windows File History is a great option for file versioning, but it relies on using an external drive for backups, and backups are limited to every 15 minutes. While it does support network drives, supporting this seems more problematic depending on how your network is configured.
With this in mind, you might prefer to use third-party file version control software. While there are paid options, one of the simplest file versioning apps for Windows is AutoVer, a free app that lets you regularly back up your files to external drives, network storage devices, and external FTP servers.

      1. First, download and install AutoVer on your Windows PC. After installing the software, you can start monitoring specific folders by selecting the Add New Watcher icon in the AutoVer client.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. You will need to specify the folder you want to monitor and where to save the backup files. Enter a name for the monitor rule in the Name field. In the Watch Folder section, specify the location of the folder or drive that you want to monitor. Finally, specify the location to save the backups in the “Archive to” field. You can choose to use local backup storage, such as an external drive, or switch to FTP file backup by choosing one of the backup type options.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. On the Versioning tab, you can choose how long you want to keep the backup files. If you plan to back up to a remote server, you can set FTP connection parameters on the FTP tab. If you are satisfied with the changes, click OK to save the changes.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. AutoVer will automatically back up any changes to your files almost immediately after the changes are made. However, to immediately run the observer rule and start a new backup, click the Synchronize Selected Observer (Backup Now!) Button.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

      1. If you want to view the backup files, you can do so by right-clicking the watcher rule and selecting the “Explore backups” option. This will open AutoVer File Explorer allowing you to view the files that have been saved. If you want to restore an earlier version of a file, you can select one of its versions by selecting the outdated version in the right column and then clicking the Restore File button.

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10
While AutoVer may look a little outdated, it works incredibly well for regularly backing up your files and gives you a third-party option for file versioning in Windows 10. File backups are done almost immediately, allowing you to quickly restore changes to files that may have changed. by mistake.
While cloud storage like Google Drive is alternatives, you’re limited by how often you can store versions of a file. This makes unlimited file versioning like AutoVer an excellent long term backup solution.

Keep Windows 10 files safe

Your computer won’t last forever, so it’s important to always keep your Windows backup system in mind. Recovering previous versions of files in Windows 10 will be much easier if you start using external cloud storage like Google Backup and Sync to store copies of your files
However, if you’re only concerned with rolling back small changes, Windows’ built-in file history should work fine, but you can save file versions more regularly using tools like AutoVer. If you deleted files by mistake, you can restore them using third-party software like Shadow Explorer

How to Restore Previous Versions of Files in Windows 10

Categories
Networking

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

When you connect to your local network via WiFi or Ethernet, the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server on your network router will give your device an IP address. This gives your device an identifier that allows other devices to find it and connect to it. Typically, this IP address is valid for about 24 hours before it expires.

This is due to the timing of the DHCP lease. This allows the LAN to redistribute IP addresses from devices that have been disconnected for a while to other devices, freeing up IP addresses for other devices that can connect (unless you give them a static IP address).

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

What is the DHCP lease time and should it be changed?

Unless otherwise noted, a typical network router assumes that any connection to it is temporary. Your device is assigned an IP address by a DHCP server with an associated lease. If after this period your device is not visible, the lease expires and the IP address is released for use by other devices.

The DHCP lease time is the time that a lease remains active before it expires. As we already mentioned, 24 hours is the usual lease period provided by networks for connected devices, but this is a standard value and may not be suitable for your network.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

However, you can change this value. If you are using an open or public network that other users can connect to, you can expect a lot of short-term connections. This is where it makes sense to shorten the lease time while keeping the pool of free IP addresses replenished and allowing new devices to connect.

The rental period depends on your needs. For example, you can use an hour for a WiFi network in a restaurant and 12 hours for a guest office network.

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To change these settings, you will need administrative access to your network router. While you can view the current DHCP lease time on your PC or Mac, you will need access to your router to change it.

How to display DHCP Lease Time on Windows 10

You can view the DHCP lease times for Windows PCs using Windows PowerShell, a command line replacement in Windows 10.

  • To open a PowerShell window, right-click the Windows Start menu. and click Windows PowerShell (Admin). This will launch a PowerShell terminal with administrator rights.

  • In the PowerShell window, enter ipconfig / all. It will list all the information you need about your current network connections, including DHCP lease issue and expiration time. For your network adapter, find the Lease Obhibited and Lease Expires values.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

With this information, you can determine the rental period. In the example above, the lease expires exactly 24 hours after the lease was first booked. This period may be shorter or longer for your connection, depending on your network configuration.

How to display DHCP Lease Duration on macOS

On Mac, you can view DHCP lease times using the built-in Terminal app.

  • You can launch the Terminal application by clicking Launchpad Other Terminal in the dock at the bottom of the screen.

  • You need to know the name of your network device in macOS. To do this, type networksetup -listallhardwareports in the Terminal window and press Enter. It will list the names and MAC addresses of all network devices.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

  • Once you have your device name, you can find out the current DHCP lease time by typing ipconfig getpacket en0, replacing en0 with your own device name. It will list various information about your connection. The DHCP lease time will be listed next to the lease_time (uint32) parameter.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

The DHCP lease times will be shown here as a base 16 hexadecimal value. You will need to convert these values
??to standard decimal. For example, the above connection has a DHCP lease hex value of 0x15180. This translates to 86400, the lease duration in seconds, which is equivalent to 24 hours.

Change DHCP lease times on a local network

It is not possible to change the DHCP lease time in your device’s network settings as this is controlled by a DHCP server that allocates IP addresses, which is usually your network router. To change this, you need administrative access to the router.

You can usually connect to your network router by typing http://192.168.1.1 or http://192.168.0.1 in your web browser while connected to the network. You may need to check the manual for your router to determine if this is the correct way to connect, and determine the admin username and password to login.

Once you are logged in, you will need to find the corresponding network / LAN settings or DHCP settings in the settings menu of your router. If you can’t find it, check your user manual for more tips.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

The meaning of the DHCP lease is named differently. For example, on a TP-Link router, this value is called the address lease time. You can set this value in minutes for this type of router, up to a maximum of 2880 (equivalent to 48 hours). Other routers will have more or less maximum leases.

Change the value accordingly, then save the settings. After changing the DHCP lease value, your devices will be assigned a new lease time.

How to Renew a DHCP Lease

If you changed the DHCP lease time, you can force all connected devices to release the existing IP lease and renew it. This will allow any changes to the DHCP lease information to be applied immediately.

  • On a Windows 10 PC, open a Windows PowerShell window by right-clicking the Start menu and clicking Windows PowerShell. (Administrator).

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

  • Enter ipconfig / Renew to restore the connection. At this point, the network DHCP server will issue a new lease.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

  • On macOS, this can be done from the System Preferences menu. Click the Apple icon in the menu bar, then click System Preferences.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

  • From the System Preferences menu, click Network. Select your network connection from the left menu and click Advanced.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

  • From the Advanced Network menu, click the TCP / IP tab. Click the Renew DHCP Lease button to automatically release and renew the IP lease.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

It will take a few seconds. Once complete, your IP will update to confirm your IP, but you will need to run ipconfig getpacket en0 (replacing en0 with your own connection) from the Terminal app to check your current lease time.

Corrected Network Administration in Windows 10

The DHCP lease time allocated to devices on the network is an important component of the operation of your network. However, if you are struggling with IP address conflicts, you may find that it is better to assign a static IP address to devices that you use regularly.

Many of these settings need to be configured on your network router, but Windows will let you change the network settings yourself – be prepared for conflicts if your settings don’t match your router. This can prevent you from seeing other computers on your network, so be sure to double check any settings you’ve changed first.

What Is DHCP Lease Time And How To Change It

Categories
Networking

How to Fix “You do not have permission to send to this recipient”

I installed Exchange Server in a virtual machine a while ago to play around with it and see if I could get the mail server to work properly. I thought I was fine because I could send and receive messages on the network and be able to send emails to the Internet.

However, when I logged on to a computer external to my network using Remote Desktop and tried to send an email to the account I created on the Exchange server, I received the following message:

You have no permission to send to this recipient. Contact your system administrator for assistance.

Then there is some kind of message relay error:

Please note, if you came to this page because you are trying to send someone an email and you are not sure if it is a problem on your side or on the recipient’s side, then it is definitely a problem on the recipient’s side! In this case, you need to call the person you are trying to send an email to and ask them to notify the network or email administrator of the problem.

This is essentially an Exchange Server configuration issue that needs to be fixed. Therefore, if users in your domain cannot receive email from outside the internal network, here’s what you need to do.

Fix the drain issue

Step 1. In Exchange System Manager, expand Servers, expand Protocols, and then expand SMTP.

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How to Fix “You do not have permission to send to this recipient”

Step 2. Select the SMTP virtual server that you are using to connect to the external network, right-click and select Options or Properties.

Step 3. On the “Access” tab, click “Relays”.

How to Fix “You do not have permission to send to this recipient”

Step 4: First select List Only below. Now you need to uncheck the “Authorize relay for authenticated computers” or “Allow all computers that successfully authenticate to relay” checkbox, click the “Users” button.

How to Fix “You do not have permission to send to this recipient”

Step 5. Select the “Allow” checkboxes for authenticated users (permission to post and permission to reply).

How to Fix “You do not have permission to send to this recipient”

This is it! Now all you have to do is start and stop the SMTP server from the main console window in Exchange! External users should now be able to send emails to your domain without receiving “Unable to relay” or “You do not have permission to send to this recipient” error messages. Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

Cannot Delete Print Job in Windows

Have you ever run into a situation where you sent a job to a printer, but it just refused to print? Are you checking the print queue, everything looks fine but nothing happens?

So, either nothing happens, or the print job fails and NORMALLY just disappears. Otherwise, you need to go to the print job queue and manually delete the print job, otherwise it will hold up any new jobs coming to the printer.

However, there are those few print jobs that do get stuck and just refuse to delete! You cancel, delete, or delete a print job, but it still remains in the queue. If you cannot delete a print job in Windows, you must completely stop the Print Spooler service, delete the print job, and then restart the service.

Cannot Delete Print Job in Windows

Manually remove the print job in Windows

Please note that when you stop the print spooler service and delete print jobs, you will have to delete ALL current print jobs as it is impossible to distinguish one print job from another.

Step 1. First go to Start, then Run and type services.msc. Scroll down to the Print Spooler service, right-click it and select Stop.

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Cannot Delete Print Job in Windows

Step 2: Now that the print spooler service is stopped, we need to go to the Windows folder where all the print jobs are spooled and delete them. Change to the following directory:

C: WINDOWS system32 spool PRINTERS

Delete everything inside this folder. DO NOT delete the folder itself, just everything in it. This will delete all print jobs currently in the print queue.

Step 3. Now return to the Services window, right-click on the Print Spooler service and select Start. Return to the print queue and refresh it. You should now see that all print jobs have been deleted and you can start printing again normally.

Cannot Delete Print Job in Windows

If you have a very important print job that is already in the queue for an outstanding print job, then deleting all jobs may not be for you. In this case, you can actually transfer the print queue to another printer and let it print all other jobs in the queue. I’ll write another post soon on how to do this. Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

If you work in a corporate environment, you can probably only print to network printers, unless you are one of the lucky few to have a personal desktop printer. The rest of us need to manually connect to a network printer in one of two ways.

If you are on a domain, then you are in luck, because all you have to do is search and a list of all the printers on the network will appear! If you need to connect to a network printer via an IP address, things are different. In this article, I’ll show you how to do it!

Connect to a network printer on a Windows domain

Whichever method you use, you always have to click Printers and Faxes from the Start menu or Control Panel.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Now click on Add Printer from the menu on the left under Printer Tasks.

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Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

On the welcome screen, click Next. Select a network printer or a printer attached to another computer and click Next.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Now, if you are on a domain, you want to select “Find a printer in the directory” and click “Next”. This will search for all printers in Active Directory.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Click the Find button and you should get a list of all network printers available in Active Directory.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Just double-click your printer and it will install automatically.

Connect to network printer via IP address

If you are not part of an Active Directory domain, you will have to connect to a network printer via its IP address. To do this, you first need to find out the IP address of the printer. You can do this by printing a configuration page for the printer. It will list all settings including network configuration.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

To connect in this way, instead of selecting a network printer, you will select a Local printer attached to this computer, and be sure to uncheck the Automatically detect and install my Plug and Play printer box.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Click Next, select Create New Port and select Standard TCP / IP Port.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

On the welcome screen, click Next and enter the printer’s IP address in the Printer Name or IP Address field.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

If the network card for the printer cannot be identified, you can get a dialog box indicating the type of device. Just leave the default “Standard NIC” option and click “Next”.

Now you will need to select the driver for the printer you want to install. If it is not in the default list provided by Windows XP, you will need to download it, click Have Disk, and specify the location of the printer driver. When finished, click Next.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

Give your printer a name and choose whether you want to use it as your default printer or not. Click Next and choose if you want to share the printer with others on the network. Finally, click Next and you will be prompted to print a test page.

Connect to Network Printer in Windows XP

This is it! The printer should now appear in the list of printers when you go to the Printers and Faxes dialog box. If you’re having trouble connecting to your network printer, please leave a comment and I’ll try to help! Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

I have previously written several articles about Remote Desktop, including how to enable Remote Desktop on a remote computer and how to access local files and folders during a Remote Desktop session. I even wrote about how to block remote PC connections!

However, I haven’t talked about how to actually set up a remote desktop router so you can connect to your computer from outside the local network. After enabling and configuring Remote Desktop, you need to configure your router to forward the Remote Desktop port (3389 by default) to the correct computer on your network.

This is called port forwarding and the method is slightly different depending on the brand of router used, like LinkSys, D-Link, Netgear, etc. However, if the instructions below do not help you figure out how to set up port forwarding on your device. router, then simply search for “router port forwarding” where router is the brand name of your router.

Set up the router for remote desktop

First, you need to log into your wireless router at home by entering the local IP address of the router in your internet browser. If you don’t know the IP address of your router, select Start, Run and enter CMD. Then enter IPCONFIG and the router address will be the default gateway entry.

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

Now enter that IP into your browser and log into your router. If you do not know the administrator username and password for your router, you can reset the router by pressing the reset button on the rear panel and then go to any of these sites with a list of default router passwords:

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http: //www.rutherpaswords.com/

http: //192-168-1-1ip.mobi/default-router-passwords-list/

Once you get into your router, look for something like port forwarding, virtual server, or applications and games. I tried to find a couple of screenshots of how this would look on LinkSys, D-link and Netgear:

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

Now you will be able to select a service from some kind of drop down list that will have a list like FTP, HTTP, TELNET, etc., and if they have Remote Desktop or RDP, select that. Enter the IP address in the appropriate field and you’re done.

If the service does not appear in the list, you either need to add a custom service or there will be blank fields where you can enter information. For example, on my Linksys router, I have a bunch of blank text boxes in my table.

I would enter Remote Desktop as the application name, 3389 for the internal port, 3389 for the external port, select TCP and UDP as the protocol, enter the IP address of the computer I want to connect to and check the Enabled box.

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

On D-link router it is called Private Port and Public Port, not inside and outside port, but it is always the same number 3389 so you won’t get confused. In Netgear, this is called Start Port and End Port.

Everything should now be configured to connect to a computer from outside the local network. To connect from the outside, you will need to get an external IP address, which is very simple. Just go to www.whatismyip.com and it will give you your external IP address.

How to Configure a Router for Remote Desktop

The only problem that can arise is that you don’t have a static IP address from your ISP. Most home users get a dynamic IP address that changes from time to time. This makes it extremely difficult to connect remotely as it won’t work when the IP address changes.

To fix this problem, you can read my detailed article from Online Tech Tips which explains how to set up dynamic DNS for Remote Desktop on your computer. Any questions? Leave a comment! Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

If you want to share files between two desktop computers, using built-in Windows functions is a good way to go. Thus, if you add another computer to your network, you can easily exchange files with that computer without the need to install any additional software.

If you have two computers, each with wireless cards installed, then you can read my post on how to create a peer-to-peer network to exchange files between two computers wirelessly.

In this tutorial, I’ll walk you through a simple process to set up file sharing between two computers in Windows XP. Windows Vista has a completely different way of sharing files, so this is a separate article.

Network of two Windows XP computers

The first step in networking two computers together is to make sure they are in the same domain or workgroup. You can’t network two Windows computers if they don’t have one in common.

To do this, right-click on “My Computer”, select “Properties” and go to the “Computer Name” tab.

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Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

As you can see, my computer is joined to a workgroup called WORKGROUP. If I want to make sure another computer can communicate with this computer, I have to make sure it is also in a workgroup called WORKGROUP. To do this, just click the “Change” button.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

When both computers are in the same domain or workgroup, you can set up file sharing. Navigate to the folder you want to share in File Explorer, right-click it and select Properties. Now go to the Sharing tab.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

Click “If you understand the security risks but want to share files without starting the wizard, click here.” Now just select “Just turn on file sharing” when you have two options.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

The wizard will just activate the firewall, but all SP2 and SP3 XP installations will automatically activate the firewall, so you don’t have to worry about that. You should now see the “Share this folder online” checkbox. Go ahead, check this out and check the box below if you want others to be able to edit shared files.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

Now go to another computer on the network, open “My Computer” and click “Network Neighborhood”.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

Now click on View Workgroup Computers to get a list of all computers in the workgroup. If you don’t see other computers in My Network Places, read my previous post to find solutions.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

You should see the name of the computer on which you are installing the shared folder. Go ahead and double click on it and you should see a shared folder!

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

That’s all! If you have any issues such as “Access Denied” or “You do not have permission,” make sure File and Printer Sharing is added as an exception to Windows Firewall.

Network Two Computers Running Windows XP

If you are having trouble networking two computers, feel free to leave a comment and I’ll try to help! Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

Why is the Default IP Address for My Router 192.168.0.1?

Someone in my office recently asked me why their wireless routers always have a default IP address of 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1, and I really couldn’t find a good answer! I was an IT guy myself, and I was clearly annoyed by the fact that I didn’t really think all the time about what was on my face.

So why do most routers use this IP address? Well, it’s actually pretty simple. This is because the IP address is not a routable IP address. A non-routable IP address, also known as a private IP address, is not assigned to any one organization and should not be assigned by an ISP.

Why is the Default IP Address for My Router 192.168.0.1?

Some will argue that all IP addresses are routable, it is just that certain ranges of IP addresses are not publicly routed on the Internet. Instead, they are routed through a NAT gateway or proxy server before connecting to the Internet.

Private IP addresses are used on most networks of large and small businesses because the ISP usually only assigns one public IP address to a location. Almost all IPv4 addresses have been depleted and therefore we have to rely so much on private IP addresses. When IPv6 eventually arrives, everyone will have a public IP address for each device, but that’s still a long way off.

If there are multiple devices that need to connect to the Internet with only one public IP address, a NAT (Network Address Translation) gateway is used to translate all private IP addresses to a public IP address before going online. In most cases, the NAT device is also a router that issues private IP addresses to all computers on the local network (DHCP server).

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There are officially three ranges of private IP addresses defined by IANA in RFC 1918:

IP range

Number of addresses

Class

10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 16,777,216

Class A

172.16 .0.0 – 172.31.255.25 1 048 576

Class B

192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 65 536

Class C

Every private network in the world uses one of these three IP address ranges for its addressing scheme. The class is determined by the number of used addresses in this range. Class A has over 16 million usable addresses and is only needed by very large organizations with hundreds of interconnected networks.

The reason most routers are installed with a Class C IP address is because it can still handle over 65,000 IP addresses, which is enough for just about any home or small business.

The first used address on a Class C network is 192.168.0.1, which is usually the value set for the router. However, in recent years, I’ve noticed that more brands are starting to use 192.168.1.1 as their default IP, perhaps because it’s easier to remember. Note that you can change the default IP address to either Class B or Class A network IP if you wish and it will still work fine.

Why is the Default IP Address for My Router 192.168.0.1?

There is really no other difference between different ranges of private IP addresses other than the number of addresses available.

Note that there are other private IP ranges, such as 1.0.0.0/8 and 2.0.0.0/8, but they are not used. You may have seen other private IP addresses: 169.254.x.x / 16 and 127.x.x.x / 8. These are called APIPA addresses and loopback addresses, respectively.

APIPA addresses are used only when there is no DHCP server to assign IP addresses. The devices automatically assign themselves an IP address in the range 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255. This ensures that devices can communicate with each other even without a DHCP server or the need to manually assign IP addresses.

A loopback address is assigned to all network cards and is used to test the card.

Anyway, hopefully this explains a little why routers have addresses like 192.168.0.1 or 10.0.1.1, etc. I’m sure my explanation wasn’t perfect, so if I made any wrong statement please feel free to leave a comment! Enjoy!

Categories
Networking

Which WiFi Encryption is Best?

Encrypting your wireless network does two things: it helps prevent leeches (i.e. your neighbors) who would otherwise use your Wi-Fi to access the Internet for free, and it helps prevent intruders from entering your system to track your computer.

Of course, most wireless routers have encryption turned off by default, so whatever choice you make is better than nothing at all. The three main standards for wireless encryption are described below:

WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy (or Wireless Encryption Protocol) was the original security scheme included in early wireless routers and is also the weakest. With the right software, an attacker can easily break into a WEP-protected network in a matter of minutes using a chained key attack. This is considered an almost outdated technology, so only use WEP if you have older PCs or devices that don’t support the newer types described below.

WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access was created as a temporary measure to eliminate vulnerabilities in WEP. If you have Windows XP computers on your network, they will need Service Pack 2 to connect to the WPA encrypted network. In particular, the Temporary Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) has been ported to WPA. TKIP uses R64 encryption to protect data.

WPA2 / PSK
Also known as 802.11i or PSK for Pre-Shared Key, WPA2 is the complete form of WPA and is considered the strongest non-proprietary encryption scheme for 802.11x wireless networks. WPA2 implements the mandatory elements of 802.11i. In particular, it introduces a new AES-based algorithm that is considered completely secure and better than TKIP.

For maximum wireless security, select WPA2-Personal with AES or TKIP encryption. In your Linksys or Cisco settings, select WPA2 Personal for the most secure Wi-Fi setup for home use:

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Which WiFi Encryption is Best?

There are reports of cases where some websites are not browsing properly if you are using ASE, so try using TKIP and see if that solves the problem.

Ben Karigtan Shows How It’s Done!

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Networking

How to Change an Apache Server Listening Port

Last week I discovered a server with HTTPS port 80 already occupied by other software. Unsurprisingly, another web server program, IIS, was the culprit. Since IIS users are already used to the default port, the Apache installation was left with no choice but to use the less popular HTTP port, in this case port 81.

Why is port 80 important for http, you might ask? Well, first of all is the ease of use for users. If you are viewing a web server listening on a port other than port 80, you will need to include the port number along with the address.

Something like this: http://yourdomain.com:81/ if port 81 is your webserver port. If you are using port 80, you do not need to enter port 80 in the address, as this is the standard port used for HTTP. According to http://www.tcpipguide.com

“To avoid chaos, software that implements a specific server process typically uses the same reserved port number on every IP device, so clients can easily find it Every web browser just“ knows ”that the web sites are designed to listen for requests sent on port 80 “.

So with this fact established, let’s see how we can change the port of our Apache installation. First find the httpd.conf file in your Apache conf folder.

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How to Change an Apache Server Listening Port

httpd.conf is a text file used by all Apache implementations, so modifying your Unix Apache or Windows Apache installation is done the same way – via this config file. Open the file with your favorite text editor and find the line that says “Listen 80”:

How to Change an Apache Server Listening Port

This line tells Apache to listen on port 80. All you have to do is change this port 80 to whatever port you want to use. Make sure the port you will be using is free and not yet occupied by other services. Read our guide on a free port scanner if you’re not sure.

After editing the file, save it and restart Apache. To check if you are already using the new port, look at the URL with the port you used. For example, if you entered port 81 as the new port, the new URL should be http: // yourdomain: 81.

Another method I read about on the internet is slightly different. If the above doesn’t work for you, try going to /etc/apache2/ports.conf and changing the Listen line there to something like Listen 81.

Then go to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf and change the first line to VirtualHost *: 81. Restart Apache and you can visit the domain without entering the port number. Apache should automatically redirect to / var / www / html. Enjoy!