Best age calculator.Cervical screening programs are expensive to organize and implement and require uptake rates of around 70% to 80% to guarantee effectiveness. They also require regular attendance for screening,” Tim Palmer, FRCPath, clinical lead for cervical screening in Scotland and honorary senior lecturer in the division of pathology at University of Edinburgh, said in an interview with HemOnc Today. “These constraints effectively preclude most countries in the world — including those in which the burden of cervical cancer is greatest — from mounting the prevention that, hitherto, has been the only one available to them.”
Scotland’s national HPV immunization program, launched in in 2008, used the bivalent vaccine until 2012. The school-based program targeted girls aged 12 and 13 years and was supplemented with a 3-year catch-up program to age 18 years.
Scotland also has a national cervical screening program, for which women ages 20 to 60 years were eligible until June 5, 2016, when the age range increased to 25 to 64 years. The program provides screenings every 3 years until age 50 years, followed by every 5 years until age 65 years, with a 5-year extension if necessary for follow-up of abnormalities.
Palmer and colleagues extracted screening data from the Scottish Cervical Call-Recall System on 138,692 women born between Jan. 1, 1988 and June 5, 1996, who had a documented smear test result at age 20 years.
Data extracted included community health index number, postal code, date of birth, attendance, immunization status, cytology result, referral for colposcopy and related histological diagnosis.
Fewer than half of the women (46.2%) were unvaccinated, whereas 49.4% received all three doses of vaccine, 3% received two doses and 1.5% received one dose.
Effect of vaccination on cytology results and related histological diagnoses from first year of screening at age 20 years, which researchers calculated using logistic regression, served as the study’s primary outcome.
Results showed that compared with unvaccinated women born in 1988, vaccinated women born in 1995 and 1996 demonstrated an 89% (95% CI, 81-94) reduction in prevalence of grade 3 or worse central intraepithelial neoplasia, from 0.59% (95% CI, 0.48-0.71) to 0.06% (95% CI, 0.04-0.11).